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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), one in ten deaths in children younger than 5 years is attributable to diarrhoea. The substantial between-country variation in both diarrhoea incidence and mortality is attributable to interventions that protect children, prevent infection, and treat (...) greater than 10%. Although children in much of Africa remain at high risk of death due to diarrhoea, regions with the most deaths were outside Africa, with the highest mortality units located in Pakistan. Indonesia showed the greatest within-country geographical inequality; some regions had mortality rates nearly four times the average country rate. Reductions in mortality were correlated to improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) or reductions in child growth failure (CGF). Similarly
COVID-19 and mitigating impact on health inequalities COVID-19 and mitigating impact on health inequalities | RCP London Menu Education & Practice Events Video About us Who we are What we do Who's who Get involved Menu COVID-19 and mitigating impact on health inequalities Details Date: 3 April 2020 Policy team Email: , a community of practice supported by Public Health England. As highlighted by ‘ , health is affected by the environment and community in which we live. The more deprived the area (...) , the shorter the life expectancy and the poorer the state of health within these shorter lives. The diagram below illustrates how some groups within the population may be disproportionately affected by COVID-19. There are clear reasons for giving consideration and support to those groups that experience health inequalities. The economic and social response to COVID-19 has the potential to exacerbate these health inequalities. Those in low paid or insecure work, or with existing health conditions or who
New Zealand health system: universalism struggles with persisting inequities. New Zealand was one of the first countries to establish a universal, tax-funded national health service. Unique features include innovative Māori services, the no-fault accident compensation scheme, and the Pharmaceutical Management Agency, which negotiates with pharmaceutical companies to get the best value for medicines purchased by public money. The so-called universal orientation of the health system, along (...) with a strong commitment to social service provision, have contributed to New Zealand's favourable health statistics. However, despite a long-standing commitment to reducing health inequities, problems with access to care persist and the system is not delivering the promise of equitable health outcomes for all population groups. Primary health services and hospital-based services have developed largely independently, and major restructuring during the 1990s did not produce the expected efficiency gains
Improving health with programmatic, legal, and policy approaches to reduce gender inequality and change restrictive gender norms. Evidence that gender inequalities and restrictive norms adversely affect health is extensive; however, far less research has focused on testing solutions. We first comprehensively reviewed the peer-reviewed and grey literature for rigorously evaluated programmes that aimed to reduce gender inequality and restrictive gender norms and improve health. We identified four (...) mutually reinforcing factors underpinning change: (1) multisectoral action, (2) multilevel, multistakeholder involvement, (3) diversified programming, and (4) social participation and empowerment. Following this review, because little research has investigated the effects of national-level law and policy reforms, we conducted original quasi-experimental studies on laws and policies related to education, work, and income, all social determinants of health in which deep gender inequalities exist. We
Gender inequality and restrictive gender norms: framing the challenges to health. Gender is not accurately captured by the traditional male and female dichotomy of sex. Instead, it is a complex social system that structures the life experience of all human beings. This paper, the first in a Series of five papers, investigates the relationships between gender inequality, restrictive gender norms, and health and wellbeing. Building upon past work, we offer a consolidated conceptual framework (...) that shows how individuals born biologically male or female develop into gendered beings, and how sexism and patriarchy intersect with other forms of discrimination, such as racism, classism, and homophobia, to structure pathways to poor health. We discuss the ample evidence showing the far-reaching consequences of these pathways, including how gender inequality and restrictive gender norms impact health through differential exposures, health-related behaviours and access to care, as well as how gender
Understanding the consequences of education inequality on cardiovascular disease: mendelian randomisation study. To investigate the role of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and smoking behaviour in explaining the effect of education on the risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes.Mendelian randomisation study.UK Biobank and international genome-wide association study data.Predominantly participants of European ancestry.Educational attainment, BMI, systolic blood pressure
Trends in earnings and income inequalities in Scotland and the UK 1997-2016 Even money? Trends in earnings and income inequalities in Scotland and the UK, 1997-2016 David Walsh & Bruce Whyte December 2018 2 Contact David Walsh Public Health Programme Manager Glasgow Centre for Population Health Email: David.Walsh.email@example.com Tel: 0141 330 2747 3 Contents Executive summary 4 Acknowledgements 7 Background, aims and research questions 8 Methods 9 Results 12 1. How do median earnings compare (...) across the countries and cities of interest? 12 2. Changes in the distribution of earnings 15 3. Earnings by occupation 25 4. Earnings in the public and private sectors 30 5. Low pay 41 6. Gender inequalities 49 7. Trends in Scottish household income inequality 66 Discussion 74 Conclusions 79 Appendix A: additional analyses of earnings in public and private employment sectors 80 References 84 4 Executive summary Income inequality is a well-established ‘fundamental cause’ of health inequality. Given
Girlsâ€™ hidden penalty: analysis of gender inequality in child mortality with data from 195 countries Gender inequality has been associated with child mortality; however, sex-specific mortalities have yet to be explored. The aim of this study is to assess the associations between gender inequality and the child mortality sex ratio at country level, worldwide and to infer on possible mechanisms.Data on sex-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MR) and the corresponding sex ratio (U5MSR (...) ) for the year 2015, by country, were retrieved from the Unicef database. Excess under-five female mortality was derived from previous published work. Gender inequality was measured using the Gender Inequality Index (GII). Additional biological and social variables have been included to explore potential mechanistic pathways.A total of 195 countries were included in the analysis. In adjusted models, GII was significantly negatively associated with the U5MSR (β=-0.29 (95% CI -0.42 to -0.16), p<0.001
Transnational wealth-related health inequality measurement The study of international differences in wealth-related health inequalities has traditionally consisted of country-by-country comparisons using own-country relative measures of socioeconomic status, which effectively ignores absolute differences in both wealth and health that can differ between and within countries. To address these limitations, we propose an alternative approach: that of constructing a transnational measure of wealth (...) -related health inequality. To illustrate the limitations of the country-by-country approach, we simulate the impact of changes in wealth and health inequalities both between and within countries on cross-country measures of health inequality and find at least five errors that may arise using country-by-country methods. We then empirically demonstrate the transnational approach to wealth-related health inequalities between and within Haiti and the Dominican Republic, the two constituent countries
Measuring social inequality in health amongst indigenous peoples in the Arctic. A comparison of different indicators of social disparity among the Inuit in Greenland The purpose of the article is to compare different indicators of social position as measures of social inequality in health in a population sample from an indigenous arctic people, the Inuit in Greenland. Data was collected during 2005-2015 and consisted of information from 3967 adult Inuit from towns and villages in all parts (...) of Greenland. Social inequalities for smoking and central obesity were analysed in relation to seven indicators of social disparity in four dimensions, i.e. education and employment, economic status, sociocultural position, and place of residence. For each indicator we calculated age-adjusted prevalence by social group, rate ratio and the concentration index. The indicators were correlated with Pearson's r ranging from 0.24 to 0.82. Concentration indices ranged from 0.01 to 0.17. We could not conclude
Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Follow-up findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study In response to the 2007/8 financial crisis and the subsequent 'Great Recession', the UK government pursued a policy of austerity, characterised by public spending cuts and reductions in working-age welfare benefits. This paper reports on a case study of the effects of this policy on local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing in the local authority of Stockton (...) -on-Tees in the North East of England, an area with very high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. Follow-up findings from a prospective cohort study of the gap in mental health and wellbeing between the most and least deprived neighbourhoods of Stockton-on-Tees is presented. It is the first quantitative study to use primary data to intensively and longitudinally explore local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing during austerity and it also examines any changes in the underpinning social
Inequality Top results for inequality - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4 (...) ) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for inequality The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you
The rise and fall of mortality inequality in South Africa in the HIV era Post-apartheid South Africa has seen an unprecedented rise and fall of mortality in less than two decades as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the subsequent rollout of free antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the incidence of both was not equal for rich and poor, it is likely to also have affected disparities in health and survival chances by income. We use large nationwide surveys for 2001, 2007 and 2011 to obtain (...) estimates of average income and mortality at the aggregate level of a municipality, and then to examine changes in mortality - and in inequality in mortality by income ─ over time. Using concentration indices to measure health inequality, we demonstrate that both the mean mortality level and absolute inequality in mortality by income rose rapidly until 2006, and declined again sharply since the rollout of free ART. Relative inequalities in mortality by income, however, remained fairly stable over
Occupational inequalities in female cancer incidence in Japan: Hospital-based matched case-control study with occupational class Socioeconomic inequalities in female cancer incidence have previously been undocumented in Japan.Using a nationwide inpatient dataset (1984-2016) in Japan, we identified 143,806 female cancer cases and 703,157 controls matched for sex, age, admission date, and admitting hospital, and performed a hospital-based matched case-control study. Based on standardized national (...) with higher SES.Even after controlling for major modifiable risk factors, socioeconomic inequalities were evident for female cancer incidence in Japan.
Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006â€“2009 Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands (...) . Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education. Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35-64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006-2009. The final population comprised 2.3
Does selective migration alter socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Wales?: a record-linked total population e-cohort study Recent studies found evidence of health selective migration whereby healthy people move to less deprived areas and less healthy people move to or stay in more deprived areas. There is no consensus, however, on whether this influences health inequalities. Measures of socio-economic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy are widely used by government and health (...) at each quarter, age, sex, and date of death. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for the deprivation quintiles in all-cause mortality, as well as deprivation change between the start and end of the study. We found evidence of health selective migration in some groups, for example people aged under 75 leaving the most deprived areas having a higher mortality risk than those they left behind, suggesting widening inequalities, but also found the opposite pattern for other
Mind the gap: Temporal trends in inequalities in infant and child mortality in India (1992â€“2016) •Temporal trends in inequalities in infant and child mortality over two and half decades in India.•Relative change in inequalities in child mortality over survey periods.•Scatter plots to identify states with largest inequalities among wealth index groups.•Concentration Index by various background characteristics and decomposition analysis to identify factors contributing in inequality in infant
Inequalities in socio-emotional development and positive parenting during childhood: Evidence from China 2010â€“2014 Socio-emotional development (SED) is a critical dimension of early childhood development (ECD). However, little research has been conducted thus far regarding inequalities across family income status in children's SED and positive parenting scores in China, which has the second largest population of children in the world. Using nationally representative data from the China Family (...) Panel Survey (CFPS), we addressed this knowledge gap by assessing the levels and trends of inequalities in children's SED scores and positive parenting scores across wealth quintiles between 2010 and 2014. Positive parenting was measured for (1) children aged two and younger (PP_younger) and (2) children between the ages of three and five (PP_older). We adopted five inequality measures, including both absolute and relative measures. We found that, between 2010 and 2014, SED scores significantly