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Latest & greatest articles for corticosteroids
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Are intravenous corticosteroids required in status asthmaticus? Seventy-seven patients with status asthmaticus were prospectively studied to compare oral with intravenous methylprednisolone. Patients were given methylprednisolone, either 160 or 320 mg orally or 500 or 1000 mg intravenously, daily in equally divided doses. They were randomly assigned to either group on a daily sequential basis. Spirometry was performed within one hour of the initial dose of steroids. The mean presenting forced
Methotrexate in the treatment of corticosteroid-dependent asthma. A double-blind crossover study. To test our previous observation that methotrexate reduces corticosteroid requirements of patients with severe asthma, we studied 14 patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma in a 24-week randomized double-blind crossover trial comparing a low dosage of methotrexate (15 mg per week) with placebo. At base line the mean dosage of prednisone was 173.5 mg per week (range, 70 to 420 (...) patients and an evanescent rash in one patient. Nine patients are still receiving methotrexate 3 to 10 months after the study's conclusion. The dosages of steroids have been further reduced in each of these patients, and prednisone has been discontinued in four. We conclude from this preliminary study that the use of methotrexate allows a significant reduction in the use of corticosteroids in patients with severe asthma without deterioration of pulmonary function.
Pretreatment with corticosteroids to alleviate reactions to intravenous contrast material. The x-ray contrast mediums used over the past three decades have been salts of iodinated acids administered in highly hypertonic concentrations. We conducted a multiinstitutional randomized study of the protective effects of pretreatment with corticosteroids against reactions to intravenous contrast material. We gave 6763 patients two doses of oral corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, 32 mg) approximately (...) 12 hours and 2 hours before challenge with contrast material, one dose of oral prednisolone approximately 2 hours before challenge, or placebo in the same dosages. The two-dose corticosteroid regimen, but not the one-dose regimen, significantly reduced the incidence of reactions of all types (P less than 0.05) except a category of reactions dominated by hives, for which the reduction approached significance (P = 0.055). In recent years, several relatively expensive monomeric nonionic iodinated
High-dose corticosteroids in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Corticosteroids are widely used as therapy for the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) without proof of efficacy. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of methylprednisolone therapy in 99 patients with refractory hypoxemia, diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiography and absence of congestive heart failure documented by pulmonary-artery catheterization
Comparison of aminohydroxypropylidene diphosphonate, mithramycin, and corticosteroids/calcitonin in treatment of cancer-associated hypercalcaemia. Thirty-nine patients with cancer-associated hypercalcaemia were randomly allocated to receive aminohydroxypropylidene diphosphonate (APD), mithramycin, or corticosteroids and salmon calcitonin. Corticosteroids/calcitonin had the fastest calcium-lowering effect, owing mainly to an acute reduction in renal tubular calcium reabsorption; continued
Intravenous immunoglobulin versus oral corticosteroids in acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood. In a randomised, multicentre study intravenous IgG was compared with oral corticosteroids in 108 children with untreated acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura. IgG was an efficient treatment with no severe untoward reactions. The effects of corticosteroids and IgG were identical for rapid responders, who accounted for 62% of all patients. In contrast, patients requiring more than (...) initial treatment responded better if randomised to IgG. The serum IgG level increased two-fold after IgG. A significant rise in IgM levels was observed after both IgG and corticosteroids. The platelet-associated IgG index was high in 75% of all patients. No significant differences between the two treatment groups were found, but rapid responders had a smaller mean initial platelet-associated IgG index which returned more rapidly and more permanently to normal than that of slow responders.
The effects of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with septic shock. A prospective, controlled study. To determine whether corticosteroids are efficacious in severe septic shock, we conducted a prospective study of 59 patients randomly assigned to a methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, or control group. Patients were treated 17.5 +/- 5.4 hours (mean +/- S.E.M.) after the onset of shock, and 55 patients required vasopressor agents. Early in the hospital course, reversal of shock was more likely (...) in patients who received corticosteroids than in those who did not. Four (19 per cent) of 21 methylprednisolone-treated, 7 (32 per cent) of 22 dexamethasone-treated, and none of 16 control patients had reversal of shock 24 hours after drug administration (corticosteroid groups vs. control group, P less than 0.05). Patients treated with corticosteroids within four hours after the onset of shock had a higher incidence of shock reversal (P less than 0.05). At 133 hours after drug administration, 17 (40 per
Association of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic-ulcer disease. We reexamined the association between corticosteroid therapy and subsequent peptic ulceration or gastrointestinal hemorrhage by pooling data from 71 controlled clinical trials in which patients were randomized to systemic corticosteroids (or ACTH) or to nonsteroid therapy. Of 3064 steroid-treated patients evaluated for peptic ulcer, 55 (1.8 per cent) had ulcers, as compared with 23 of 2897 controls (0.8 per cent) (relative (...) with a history of ulcer, the trend remained consistent but did not always reach statistical significance. This study strongly suggests that corticosteroids do increase the risk of peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
in those who had responded to therapy in the initial period of the trial. A daily dose of 400 mug of inhaled drug was approximately equivalent to 7-5 mg daily of prednisone. Prednisone suppressed the adrenal response to tetracosactrin, whereas the mean responses in the groups receiving inhaled corticosteroids did not change significantly from pre-trial values. The 30% incidence of other systemic unwanted effects of prednisone contrasted sharply with the low incidence (5%) of symptomatic oropharyngeal (...) Inhaled corticosteroids compared with oral prednisone in patients starting long-term corticosteroid therapy for asthma. A controlled trial by the British Thoracic and Tuberculosis Association. Inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and inhaled betamethasone valerate have been compared with oral prednisone in the treatment of 75 patients with asthma who were starting long-term corticosteroids for the first time. Both of the inhaled corticosteroids controlled asthma as well as did oral prednisone
The effects of early corticosteroid therapy on the skin eruption and pain of herpes zoster. 4905733 1970 03 31 2016 10 17 0098-7484 211 10 1970 Mar 09 JAMA JAMA The effects of early corticosteroid therapy on the skin eruption and pain of herpes zoster. 1681-3 Eaglstein W H WH Katz R R Brown J A JA eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Placebos 1ZK20VI6TY Triamcinolone AIM IM Adult Age Factors Aged Clinical Trials as Topic Herpes