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The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on children or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Urinary tract infections in children. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children are among the most common bacterial infections in childhood. They are equally common in boys and girls during the first year of life and become more common in girls after the first year of life. Dividing UTIs into three categories; febrile upper UTI (acute pyelonephritis), lower UTI (cystitis), and asymptomatic bacteriuria, is useful for numerous reasons, mainly because it helps to understand the pathophysiology
Associations Between Maternal Antenatal Corticosteroid Treatment and Mental and Behavioral Disorders in Children. Maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment is standard care to accelerate fetal maturation when birth before 34 weeks is imminent. Recently, expansion of the indications beyond 34 gestational weeks has been debated. However, data about long-term outcomes remain limited, especially among infants who after treatment exposure are born at term.To study if antenatal corticosteroid (...) December 31, 2017.Maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment.Primary outcome was any childhood mental and behavioral disorder diagnosed in public specialized medical care settings.Of the 674 877 singleton children born in Finland during the study period, 670 097 were eligible for analysis. The median length of follow-up was 5.8 (interquartile-range, 3.1-8.7) years. Of the 14 868 (2.22%; 46.1% female) corticosteroid treatment-exposed children, 6730 (45.27%) were born at term and 8138 (54.74%) were born
Oral galactagogues (natural therapies or drugs) for increasing breast milk production in mothers of non-hospitalised term infants. Many women express concern about their ability to produce enough milk, and insufficient milk is frequently cited as the reason for supplementation and early termination of breastfeeding. When addressing this concern, it is important first to consider the influence of maternal and neonatal health, infant suck, proper latch, and feeding frequency on milk production (...) assess the effect of oral galactagogues for increasing milk production in non-hospitalised breastfeeding mother-term infant pairs.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Health Research and Development Network - Phillippines (HERDIN), Natural Products Alert (Napralert), the personal reference collection of author LM, and reference lists of retrieved
Emapalumab in Children with Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. Primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare syndrome characterized by immune dysregulation and hyperinflammation. It typically manifests in infancy and is associated with high mortality.We investigated the efficacy and safety of emapalumab (a human anti-interferon-γ antibody), administered with dexamethasone, in an open-label, single-group, phase 2-3 study involving patients who had received conventional therapy
Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Enuresis (bedwetting) affects up to 20% of five-year-olds and can have considerable social, emotional and psychological effects. Treatments include alarms (activated by urination), behavioural interventions and drugs.To assess the effects of enuresis alarms for treating enuresis in children.We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (...) (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 25 June 2018), and reference lists of relevant articles.We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials of enuresis alarms or alarms combined with another intervention for treating nocturnal enuresis in children between 5 and 16 years old.Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data.We included 74 trials
Efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children aged 4-16 years: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. A substantial unmet need remains for safe and effective vaccines against dengue virus disease, particularly for individuals who are dengue-naive and those younger than 9 years. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TAK-003) in healthy children aged 4-16 years.We present data up to 18 months post (...) -vaccination from an ongoing phase 3, randomised, double-blind trial of TAK-003 in endemic regions of Asia and Latin America (26 medical and research centres across Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Panama, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand). Healthy children aged 4-16 years were randomly assigned 2:1 (stratified by age and region) to receive two doses of TAK-003 or two doses of placebo, 3 months apart. Investigators, participants and their parents or guardians, and sponsor
Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in children aged 2-17 years: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. An unmet clinical need remains for an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine suitable for all age groups, regardless of serostatus. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of three different dose schedules of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (TAK-003) over a 48-month period in children living in dengue-endemic countries.We did a large, phase 2, double-blind (...) . To maintain masking, TAK-003 recipients were administered placebo doses when appropriate. The primary objective was assessment of neutralising geometric mean titres for each serotype to month 48 assessed in the per-protocol immunogenicity subset. Secondary safety endpoints included proportions of participants with serious adverse events and symptomatic virologically confirmed dengue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02302066.Between Dec 5, 2014, and Feb 13, 2015, 1800 children were
Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 1 Dear Colleagues We are writing to you in regards to a clinical alert published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and child Health on the 1 st of May 2020 highlighting a new COVID-19-associated paediatric hyper-inflammatory presentation (Guidance - Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19). Although COVID-19 respiratory presentation in children has been rare, several (...) children have recently presented to hospitals in the South Thames region with the described Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19. Many of the children have been severely unwell at presentation requiring resuscitation and transfer to paediatric intensive care. As the anaesthetic team you may be asked to review and assist in their resuscitation and stabilisation. We thought it may be helpful to summarise some of the salient features of the presentation
was of the infant described above in the case series by Cai et al.. (1) The authors conducted an analysis of the data assuming that asymptomatic children are being mistakenly overlooked as the index case in familial clusters. Using this approach (assuming asymptomatic children as the index case), 21% (6/28) of family clusters would have a paediatric index case. (6) A case series describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 74 children with COVID-19 admitted to two hospitals in China reported (...) -CoV-2 from one of the 10 included children to two family members. This transmission was from a three month old infant to both parents, who developed symptomatic COVID-19 seven days after looking after the infant. (1) A case report of this infant confirms that, at the time of diagnosis, both parents had negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Seven days after Evidence summary of potential for children to contribute to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Health Information and Quality Authority Page 4 of 14
system dysfunction, a rate that is also lower than that seen in adults. Preschoolchildren and infants were more likely to have severe clinical manifestations than older children. There has been no evidence to date of SARS-Cov-2 involvement in the nervous system in children of any age. Nevertheless, virus infectivity and the severity of the infection represent major alarms for patients affected with chronic (and possibly acute) neurological diseases, including children. Over the last few weeks (...) . However, as reported in literature so far, only a few SARS-Cov-2–positive children have been admitted to paediatric departments and, generally speaking, severe COVID-19 in children is rare. Symptoms can be disparate and designing differentiating clinical criteria aiming to isolate suspected SARS-CoVID-2 children to avoid spreading infection between health care professionals, other patients and visitors is challenging. Some children with an underlying chest condition (eg. cystic fibrosis or severe
drainage. In a child with a very small pancreatic duct diameter in which only a 3-French pancreatic duct stent would be appropriate to place, drainage may be suboptimal because of the small diameter of the stent. Transpapillary stenting of pancreatic fluid collections in children can be a safe and successful treatment (69,74), yet its effectiveness compared with EUS-guided drainage has not been well studied in pediatrics. Overall application of ERCP for pediatric patients with CP to improve symptoms (...) on low to very low quality of evidence, and primarily represent consensus expert opinions. Some of the most urgent issues that need to be addressed relating to advanced endoscopic procedures in children with CP include: 1. Development of equipment allowing for the full breadth of EUS- and ERCP-guided endotherapy across the pediatric age range. 2. Increasing and optimizing the probability that a child undergoing EUS or ERCP is managed by an endoscopist with expertise performing these interventions
; Benchimol C; Reyes-Acevedo R; Genevray M; Bradley D et al.. Tolerability of up to 200 days of prophylaxis with valganciclovir oral solution and/or film-coated tablets in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of cytomegalovirus disease. Paediatric transplantation; Feb 2017; vol. 21 (no. 1) 10. We recommend that children and young people should be monitored for CMV viral load at least monthly for 12 months post transplant if either donor or recipient are CMV positive (CMV D+R- / CMV D-R+ / CMV D (...) . No literature was sent to participants to avoid risk of bias. The process was iterative (participants able to change their views in subsequent rounds). Two rounds were undertaken. Standardisation of immunosuppressive and anti-infective drug regimens in UK Paediatric Renal transplantation: The Harmonisation Programme 4 Table 1 – PICO characteristics Population Intervention Comparison Outcome Study design Children ( 5 (maximum dose 5mg) on alternate days Azathioprine should be prescribed at 2 mg/kg daily from
describes millions of childhood deaths from preventable causes due to kids not being able to access care – see ‘ Millions of children are at risk of dying, the United Nations said on Wednesday, not of Covid-19, but of preventable causes. Unable to get care at hospitals that are straining to fight the virus, more than a million children aged 5 or younger will die every six months, UNICEF said in a report.’ Acknowledgements: thanks to Peter Doshi for the updates Conflicts of Interest: Both TJ and CH have (...) COVID-19: Have we forgotten our children in all this? COVID-19: Have we forgotten our children in all this? - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website COVID-19: Have we forgotten our children in all this? May 14, 2020 Carl Heneghan, Tom Jefferson UNESCO has produced a report on the . The main points are: ‘Most governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions
The medical evaluation of pre-pubertal children with suspected sexual abuse Child sexual abuse is an important and not uncommon problem. Children who have been sexually abused may present to a physician’s office, urgent care centre, or emergency department for medical evaluation. A medical evaluation can provide reassurance to both child and caregiver, identify care needs, and offer an accurate interpretation of findings to the justice and child welfare systems involved.  (...) ;Given the potential medico-legal implications of these assessments, the performance of a comprehensive evaluation requires both current knowledge and clinical proficiency. This position statement presents an evidence-based, trauma-informed approach to the medical evaluation of pre-pubertal children with suspected or confirmed sexual abuse. Keywords: Ano-genital examination; Child protection; Child sexual abuse; Forensic evidence; Sexually transmitted infections
are based largely on the disease experience in China, Europe, and the United States, the paediatric literature on COVID-19 is still in its infancy and will undoubtedly evolve. Canadian guidelines have been developed, notably by [ ] . This statement provides acute care guidance for community paediatricians working in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Clinical presentation Most children presenting with fever and cough do not require hospital care. However, as with adults, infected children may (...) that asymptomatic rates are probably significantly higher, given that all these studies were based solely on cases presenting with clinical features. One recent paper suggested that children younger than 5 years of age are more likely to experience severe COVID-19 symptoms than older children and should be promptly assessed [ ] . Emerging data also appear to suggest that while infants with COVID-19 generally experience mild symptoms, they are at higher risk for severe disease than other paediatric age groups
milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr 2020; online ahead of print: DOI: 10.1111/apa.15270. Cui Y, Tian M, Huang D, et al. A 55-day-old female infant infected with COVID 2019: Presenting with pneumonia, liver injury, and heart damage. J Infect Dis 2020; online ahead of print: DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa113. Hong H, Wang Y, Chung H-T, Chen CJ. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in newborns, infants and children. Pediatr Neonatol 2020;61(2):131-2 (...) Update on COVID-19 epidemiology and impact on medical care in children: April 2020 Update on COVID-19 epidemiology and impact on medical care in children: April 2020Update on COVID-19 epidemiology and impact on medical care in children: April 2020 | Canadian Paediatric Society A home for paediatricians. A voice for children and youth. Current: Update on COVID-19… Practice Point Update on COVID-19 epidemiology and impact on medical care in children: April 2020 Posted: Apr 29, 2020 The Canadian
of Children’s Diabetes Clinicians Clinicians Version 4, May 2018, Review 2021 Authors: SM Ng, E Williams , F Ackland, C Burren, J Edge, E Hind, A McAulay, Bill Lamb Treatment of Severe Hypoglycaemia Follow this page if child is unconscious or fitting (or also not responded from page 2) CHECK CAPILLARY BLOOD GLUCOSE AND CONFIRM HYPOGLYCAEMIA ( 25kg for 1mg glucagon by IM injection Glucagon is a fast acting drug and the child/adolescent should respond after 5 minutes. After the child has regained (...) for review of treatment, advice or education If child not improving: • If patients have protracted vomiting and are unable to tolerate oral fluids, hospital admission and IV glucose infusion must be considered, especially if a child has returned to the emergency department with further hypoglycaemia during the same intercurrent illness. • If a child/Adolescent remains unconscious on correction of BG consider cerebral oedema, head injury, adrenal insufficiency or drug overdose ssociation of Children’s
*)ti,ab OR (L asparaginase)ti,ab OR (L asparaginase*)ti,ab 19 4 ( (hyperglycaemia or hyperglycemia) ti,ab OR HYPERGLYCEMIA/) 21 23 (cyclosporine) ti,ab OR cyclosporine*ti.ab OR (tacrolimus,ti,ab OR (tacrolimus*)ti,ab OR (L asparaginase)ti,ab OR (L asparaginase*) AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* )35 68 Glycosuria AND 35((steroids) ti,ab ) AND STEROID/ OR , Chemotherapy) ti,ab OR Transplant * ti,ab 4,5,6,7 ) 23 25 AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* )35 26 1 (...) ( (hyperglycaemia or hyperglycemia) ti,ab OR HYPERGLYCEMIA/)20 35((steroids) ti,ab ) AND STEROID/ OR , Chemotherapy) ti,ab OR Transplant * ti,ab 4,5,6,7 ) 23 AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* ) 133 28 Transplant * ti,ab 43 HYPERGLYCEMIA/ep AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* ) 9 (Chemotherapy) ti,ab 6 AND 43 HYPERGLYCEMIA/ep AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* ) 3 5 (STEROID/, 43 HYPERGLYCEMIA/ep AND (child*OR infant* OR pediatric* or Paediatric* ) 0 4(steroids) ti
Care of the Well Child-Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes Version 4, Dec 2019 Review 2022 Authors: J Chizo Agwu, SM Ng, A Timmis, C Moudiotis, K. Matyka,, N.P.Wright, M. Kershaw S.Bahl, A. Alston . N Trevelyan Page of 7 1 ssociation of Children’s Diabetes Clinicians Clinical Guideline Care of the well child, newly diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus SETTING Insert hospital name FOR STAFF Medical and nursing staff PATIENTS Children with diabetes and their families (...) ssociation of Children’s Diabetes Clinicians References 1. British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (BSPED) guidelines for the management of DKA. http://www.bsped.org.uk/professional/ guidelines/docs/DKAGuideline.pdf 2. Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycaemia. Report of WHO/IDF Consultation 2006. 3. Wang J, Miao D, Babu S, Yu J, Barker J, Klingensmith G et al. Prevalence of Autoantibody- Negative Diabetes Is Not Rare at All Ages and Increases