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Latest & greatest articles for children
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A randomized, prospective field trial of a conjugate vaccine in the protection of infants and young children against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Haemophilus influenzae type b is the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in young children. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine does not protect children at greatest risk (those under the age of 18 months), but a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine has proved to be more immunogenic in this age group.We enrolled 114,000 (...) infants in Finland in an open, prospective, randomized trial of a H. influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-diphtheria toxoid [PRP-D]). Children born on odd-numbered days were vaccinated at the ages of 3, 4, 6, and 14 to 18 months; those born on even-numbered days formed the control group and received the same vaccine at the age of 24 months.After three doses of the vaccine there were 4 cases of verified bacteremic H. influenzae type
Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group. The prevention of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease requires a vaccine that is effective when administered during the first six months of life. The infants of Alaska Natives are at particularly high risk of invasive H. influenzae type b disease.To evaluate the protective efficacy of a H. influenzae type b polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (...) conjugate vaccine (polyribosylribitol phosphate-diphtheria toxoid [PRP-D]), we enrolled 2102 Alaska Native infants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which either the vaccine or a saline placebo was administered at approximately two, four, and six months of age.After 3969 subject-years of follow-up and 32 episodes of H. influenzae type b disease, the overall incidence of invasive disease was not reduced significantly in the vaccinated subjects (6.0 cases per 1000 patient-years
Ten-year follow-up of behavioral, family-based treatment for obese children. Using a prospective, randomized, controlled design, we examined the effects of behavioral family-based treatment on percent overweight and growth over 10 years in obese 6- to 12-year-old children. Obese children and their parents were randomized to three groups that were provided similar diet, exercise, and behavior management training but differed in the reinforcement for weight loss and behavior change. The child (...) and parent group reinforced parent and child behavior change and weight loss, the child group reinforced child behavior change and weight loss, and the nonspecific control group reinforced families for attendance. Children in the child and parent group showed significantly greater decreases in percent overweight after 5 and 10 years (-11.2% and -7.5%, respectively) than children in the nonspecific control group (+ 7.9% and + 14.3%, respectively). Children in the child group showed increases in percent
antibody, predispose patients to future insect-sting reactions, we studied a venom-sensitive group of children who were deemed to be at relatively low risk for severe reactions; 28 percent of them received venom therapy.We studied 242 children, 2 through 16 years of age, each of whom had had a systemic allergic reaction, affecting only the skin, to an insect sting. Each child had a positive skin-test reaction to one or more of five hymenopteran venoms. Sixty-eight children received immunotherapy (...) The value of immunotherapy with venom in children with allergy to insect stings. The treatment of patients allergic to insect stings with insect-venom injections has been shown to be 97 percent effective in reducing the risk of sting-induced anaphylaxis. However, the frequency of systemic reactions to subsequent stings in unimmunized adults with previous reactions is approximately 60 percent. To determine which factors, in addition to a history of reaction and evidence of venom-specific IgE
A controlled trial of corticosteroids in children with corrosive injury of the esophagus. It is controversial whether treatment with corticosteroids reduces stricture formation in the esophagus after the ingestion of caustic material.We conducted a prospective study over an 18-year period in which 60 children (median age, 2 years) with esophageal injury from the ingestion of caustic material were assigned randomly to treatment either with or without corticosteroids. The corticosteroids were (...) given initially as prednisolon (2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day intravenously) and then as prednisone orally to complete a three-week course. All patients were evaluated by esophagoscopy within 24 hours of the ingestion. Those with moderate or severe esophageal injury had repeat esophagoscopy and barium swallow at follow-up.Esophageal strictures developed in 10 of the 31 children treated with corticosteroids and in 11 of the 29 controls (P not significant). Four children in the steroid
Inhaled budesonide for treatment of recurrent wheezing in early childhood. 77 children, aged 11 to 36 months (mean 24) with moderately severe recurrent wheezing, were treated with budesonide pressurised aerosol 400 micrograms twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Aerosols were inhaled from a spacer with a facemask. Budesonide significantly improved symptom scores of wheezing, sleep disturbance, and patient happiness. The frequency of severe exacerbations (...) that required a course of oral prednisolone was also significantly reduced. The treatment effect appeared to be fully established after 6-8 weeks and no side-effects could be ascribed to the active treatment. The findings indicate that young children below 3 years of age can inhale a pressurised aerosol from a spacer with a facemask. Use of topically active glucocorticosteroids with this simple device may reduce symptoms and distress in young children with moderately severe recurrent wheeze and dyspnoea
Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. Clinical vitamin A deficiency affects millions of children worldwide, and subclinical deficiency is even more common. Supplemental vitamin A has been reported to reduce mortality among these children, but the results have been questioned.We conducted a randomized, controlled, masked clinical trial for one year in southern India involving 15,419 preschool-age children who received either 8.7 mumol (...) (8333 IU) of vitamin A and 46 mumol (20 mg) of vitamin E (the treated group) or vitamin E alone (the control group). Vitamin supplements were delivered weekly by community health volunteers who also recorded mortality and morbidity. Weekly contact was made with at least 88 percent of the children in both study groups. The base-line characteristics of the children were similar and documented a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and undernutrition.One hundred twenty-five deaths occurred, of which
Treatment of short normal children with growth hormone--a cautionary tale? 41 short normal children were randomly allocated either to daily injections of growth hormone (rhGH) at 30 IU/m2 per week or to no treatment. 6 months of rhGH therapy produced up to 76% loss of fat mass and up to 25% increase in lean body mass (LBM). These changes were significantly different from those in the untreated group. LBM was the main determinant of resting energy expenditure (REE) expressed as kJ/24 h. REE (...) expressed as kJ/kg LBM per 24 h correlated negatively with height, which was responsible for 66% of the variance in REE kJ/kg LBM per 24 h. Short children therefore expend more energy than tall children in fulfilling basic metabolic needs. After 6 months REE kJ/24 h increased significantly in treated children. However, treated children did not differ significantly from untreated children in REE kJ/kg LBM per 24 h. rhGH does not therefore seem to have a specific effect upon REE. The possibility that rhGH
Effect of massive dose vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on preschoolchild morbidity and mortality was assessed in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study around Hyderabad, India. Every six months 200,000 IU vitamin A was given to 7691 children (treatment group) whereas 8084 children received a placebo (control group). Morbidity and mortality data were collected every three months. Risk of respiratory infection (...) was higher in children with mild xerophthalmia than in children with normal eyes. Vitamin A supplementation had no effect on morbidity status. Mortality rates were similar in the two groups; it was highest in children who did not receive either vitamin A or placebo. The findings suggest that vitamin A supplementation alone may not reduce child mortality.
Extremely preterm infants, Consensus statement Extremely preterm infants, Consensus statement Extremely preterm infants, Consensus statement The Danish Medical Research Council and the Danish Hospital Institute Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation The Danish Medical Research Council and the Danish Hospital Institute. Extremely (...) preterm infants, Consensus statement. Danish Institute for Health Services Research (DSI). 1990 Authors' objectives To provide an overview of activities and problems concerning extremely preterm infants, and thereby forward the diffusion of expert knowledge to the public. Authors' conclusions More research on the consequences of extremely premature birth should be made. Information given to parents should be improved upon, and a line should be drawn as to when immature infants should be treated
A controlled trial of dexamethasone in preterm infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We evaluated the use of dexamethasone in preterm infants to decrease morbidity associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-six preterm infants (birth weight, less than or equal to 1250 g and gestational age, less than or equal to 30 weeks) who were dependent on oxygen and mechanical ventilation at two weeks of age received a 42-day (...) course of dexamethasone (n = 13), an 18-day course of dexamethasone (n = 12), or saline placebo (n = 11). The starting dose of dexamethasone was 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, and it was progressively lowered during the period of administration. Infants in the 42-day dexamethasone group, but not those in the 18-day group, were weaned from mechanical ventilation significantly faster than control infants (medians 29, 73, and 84 days, respectively; P less than 0.05), and from supplemental
Randomised comparison of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone for childhood bacterial meningitis. Finnish Study Group. In a multicentre study, 220 consecutive cases of bacterial meningitis in children older than 3 months were randomised to treatment with chloramphenicol, ampicillin (initially with chloramphenicol), cefotaxime, or ceftriaxone. The drugs were given in four equal daily doses for 7 days, except ceftriaxone which was given only once daily. 200 cases could
Reduction of nosocomial infection during pediatric intensive care by protective isolation. To determine whether simple protective isolation reduces the incidence of nosocomial bacterial and fungal infection during pediatric intensive care, we randomly assigned 70 children who were not immuno-suppressed and who required mechanical ventilatory support and three or more days of intensive care to receive standard care (n = 38) or protective isolation (n = 32) with use of disposable, non-waven (...) infection rate was 2.2 times lower than (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.0; P = 0.007), and there were fewer days with fewer (13 percent vs. 21 percent; P = 0.001). The benefit of isolation was most notable after seven days of intensive care. Isolation was well tolerated by patients and their families. Regular monitoring showed that the children in each group were touched and handled comparably often by hospital personnel and family members. We conclude that the use of disposable, high-barrier
Prevention of transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus infection in infants by blood filtration to remove leucocytes. Neonatal Cytomegalovirus Infection Study Group. A multicentre, controlled trial was carried out to determine whether removal of leucocytes from blood by means of 'Imugard IG500' (Terumo) filters would prevent transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborn infants. 72 infants whose mothers were seronegative and who received some seropositive blood were followed for 6 (...) months for evidence of CMV infection. There were no significant differences between the groups who received filtered and unfiltered blood in median gestation, birthweight, or amount of seropositive blood received (median volume 32.5 ml and 34.5 ml, respectively). 9 (21%) of the 42 infants who received unfiltered blood and none of the 30 who received filtered blood were infected with CMV. All infected infants weighed less than 1500 g at birth; they represented 31% of very low birthweight (VLBW
Screening for otitis media with effusion in preschoolchildren. 1439 Dutch children were included in a randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of preschool screening for otitis media with effusion (OME) by 3-monthly tympanometry. Children with bilateral OME on two consecutive occasions were referred for further investigation and then, if parents gave their consent, allocated at random to treatment or non-treatment groups. The effect of childhood screening for OME and subsequent treatment
Prevention of hepatitis B virus carrier state in infants according to maternal serum levels of HBV DNA. 235 infants of HBeAg-carrier mothers in Hong Kong were assigned to four study groups. Groups I, II, and III received hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine at birth and at 1, 2, and 6 months. Group I also received seven monthly injections of HB immunoglobulin (HBIg), and group II received one HBIg injection at birth. Group III received vaccine only and group IV received placebo for both vaccine and HBIg (...) . At the age of 3 years, all infants of the three treatment groups were significantly protected against the HB virus (HBV) carrier state compared with the placebo group (p less than 0.0001); the protective efficacy rates in groups I, II, and III were 87%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. At all times, group I was significantly better protected than group III. In groups III and IV, infants of mothers with serum HBV DNA levels of 5 pg/ml or above were at a significantly higher risk of acquiring the HBV carrier
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. The HIFI Study Group. We conducted a multicenter randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of high-frequency ventilation with that of conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. Of 673 preterm infants weighing between 750 and 2000 g, 346 were assigned to receive conventional (...) oscillatory ventilation, as used in this trial, does not offer any advantage over conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants, and it may be associated with undesirable side effects.
Randomised study of myringotomy, amoxycillin/clavulanate, or both for acute otitis media in infants. In a prospective study, 105 infants aged 3-12 months with acute otitis media were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: amoxycillin/clavulanate ('Augmentin') alone (36 patients), myringotomy plus placebo (35 patients), or augmentin plus myringotomy (34 patients). The last two groups were double-blinded. Bacterial pathogens, mainly Haemophilus influenzae (of which 20% were beta (...) -lactamase producers) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were isolated from 60% of the ear exudates and all isolates were sensitive to augmentin. Most of the infants improved clinically within 3-6 days irrespective of the treatment protocol. As judged by otoscopy, 60% of the patients receiving augmentin, with or without myringotomy, recovered completely compared with 23% of patients treated with myringotomy plus placebo. Treatment with augmentin was also more effective than myringotomy with regard
Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants. To examine the effects of maternal diet during lactation and the use of formula feeds on the development of atopic eczema in infants at risk.Mothers who planned to breast feed exclusively were randomly allocated to either a restricted diet (avoiding milk and other dairy products, eggs, fish, peanuts, and soybeans) or a diet without restrictions. Mothers who did not plan (...) to breast feed were randomly allocated to using one of three formula feeds.Child health centre in Canada.97 Mothers who chose to breast feed and 124 mothers who did not.Restricted diet for 49 mothers who breast fed. Casein hydrolysate formula, soy milk formula, or cows' milk formula for infants not breast fed.Development of eczema in babies.Infants were followed up over 18 months and examined for eczema. Eczema was less common and milder in babies who were breast fed and whose mothers were
Secondary acute myeloid leukemia in children treated for acute lymphoid leukemia. We studied the risk of the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during initial remission in 733 consecutive children with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) who were treated with intensive chemotherapy. This complication was identified according to standard morphologic and cytochemical criteria in 13 patients 1.2 to 6 years (median, 3.0) after the diagnosis of ALL. At three years of follow-up, the cumulative