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Latest & greatest articles for cardiovascular disease
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Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal blood pressure remains uncertain.To compare the effects of amlodipine or enalapril vs placebo on cardiovascular events in patients with CAD.Double-blind, randomized, multicenter, 24-month trial (enrollment (...) events for amlodipine vs placebo. Other outcomes included comparisons of amlodipine vs enalapril and enalapril vs placebo. Events included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, coronary revascularization, hospitalization for angina pectoris, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, fatal or nonfatal stroke or transient ischemic attack, and new diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease. The IVUS end point was change in percent atheroma volume.Baseline
A literature review of cardiovasculardisease management programs in managed care populations A literature review of cardiovasculardisease management programs in managed care populations A literature review of cardiovasculardisease management programs in managed care populations Ara S CRD summary This review assessed the effects of disease management programmes, in managed care settings, for people with congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia and/or coronary heart disease (...) . The author concluded that most programmes result in some improvement in measured outcomes. However, the conclusions should be treated with caution because of poorly reported review methodology and the uncertain quality of the included studies. Authors' objectives To assess the effects of disease management programmes, in managed care settings, in the treatment of people with cardiovasculardisease. Searching MEDLINE (1966 to December 2002), HealthSTAR (1975 to December 2002), the Cochrane Database
The role of angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in the prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiovasculardiseases: meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardisease Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: Recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care | CMAJ Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Synopsis W Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular (...) and cerebrovascular disease: Recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Recommendations The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care concludes that there is fair evidence to recommend against the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the primary prevention of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovasculardisease in perimenopausal women without established coronary artery disease (CAD) (grade D recommendation
body mass index adjustment (P =.13). Improved fitness over 7 years was associated with a reduced risk of developing diabetes (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0; P =.04) and the metabolic syndrome (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7; P<.001), but the strength and significance of these associations was reduced after accounting for changes in weight.Poor fitness in young adults is associated with the development of cardiovasculardisease risk factors. These associations involve obesity and may be modified by improving (...) Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and the development of cardiovasculardisease risk factors. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and total mortality; however, mechanisms responsible for these associations are uncertain.To test whether low fitness, estimated by short duration on a maximal treadmill test, predicted the development of cardiovasculardisease risk factors and whether improving fitness (increase in treadmill test duration between
Association between estrogen receptor alpha gene variation and cardiovasculardisease. Estrogen and related hormone therapies activate estrogen receptors, which in turn regulate genes for several cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk factors. Relatively little is known, however, about the impact of genetic variation in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) on CVD risk.To investigate whether the ESR1 c.454-397T>C polymorphism is associated with CVD risk.Prospective study of 1739 unrelated men and women (...) from the population-based offspring cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, who were followed up from 1971 to 1998.Total atherosclerotic CVD events, defined as recognized or unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, coronary insufficiency, intermittent claudication, coronary heart disease death, or atherothrombotic stroke (n = 178); major atherosclerotic CVD, defined as recognized acute MI, coronary insufficiency, coronary heart disease death, or atherothrombotic stroke (n = 83
Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Cellular antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase have a central role in the control of reactive oxygen species. In vitro data and studies in animal models suggest that these enzymes may protect against atherosclerosis, but little is known about their relevance to human disease.We conducted a prospective study among 636 patients with suspected coronary (...) artery disease, with a median follow-up period of 4.7 years (maximum, 5.4) to assess the risk of cardiovascular events associated with base-line erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase activity.Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity was among the strongest univariate predictors of the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas superoxide dismutase activity had no association with risk. The risk of cardiovascular events was inversely associated with increasing quartiles of glutathione
B-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovasculardisease. Natriuretic peptide hormones, a family of vasoactive peptides with many favourable physiological properties, have emerged as important candidates for development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in cardiovasculardisease. The rapid incorporation into clinical practice of bioassays to measure natriuretic peptide concentrations, and drugs that augment the biological actions of this system, show the potential for translational
Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovasculardisease: recommendations and rationale. This statement summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovasculardisease and the supporting scientific evidence. Part of the information on which this statement is based, including evidence tables and references, is available in the accompanying article on vitamins to prevent cardiovascular (...) disease in this issue. More complete information can be found in the summaries of the evidence on vitamins to prevent cancer and vitamins to prevent cardiovasculardisease, available on the USPSTF Web site (http://www.preventiveservices.ahrq.gov) and through the National Guideline Clearinghouse (http://www.guideline.gov). The summaries of the evidence on these topics and the recommendation statement are also available in print through subscription to the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, Third
Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovasculardisease: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Antioxidant vitamins are thought to play a role in atherosclerosis. Supplementation of these nutrients has been explored as a means of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.To assess the evidence of the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation, specifically vitamins A, C, and E; beta-carotene; folic acid; antioxidant combinations; and multivitamin (...) of each of the vitamin supplements in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease.Some good-quality cohort studies have reported an association between the use of vitamin supplements and lower risk for cardiovasculardisease. Randomized, controlled trials of specific supplements, however, have failed to demonstrate a consistent or significant effect of any single vitamin or combination of vitamins on incidence of or death from cardiovasculardisease. Understanding the sources of these differences
Relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovasculardisease in the United States. Few studies have examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovasculardisease in a general population or have included a biochemical marker of current smoking.To examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and serum C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels.Cross-sectional study.The U.S. general population.4187 current (...) smokers, 4791 former smokers, and 8375 never-smokers 18 years of age or older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 1988 and 1994.Serum C-reactive protein levels were categorized as detectable (2.2 to 9.9 mg/L) or clinically elevated (> or =10 mg/L), and fibrinogen and homocysteine levels were defined as elevated if in the 85th percentile or greater (11.1 micromol/L and 12.7 mmol/L, respectively).After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular
Association of mannose-binding lectin genotype with cardiovascular abnormalities in Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of possible infectious cause, which in particular affects the coronary arteries. Young children rely mostly on their innate immune system for protection against invading microorganisms, of which mannose-binding lectin is an important component. We aimed to investigate the possible role of the gene for this molecule (MBL) in white Dutch patients (...) with Kawasaki disease. In 90 patients, frequency of mutations in the MBL gene was higher than in healthy children. In children younger than 1 year, those with mutations were at higher risk of development of coronary artery lesions than were those without (odds ratio 15.7, 95% CI 1.4-176.5, p=0.026). Our findings suggest that the innate immune system contributes differently to pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease at various ages.
Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovasculardisease in elderly individuals. People older than 65 years are the fastest-growing segment of the population and account for the majority of cardiovasculardisease (CVD) morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. Additionally, the influence of dietary habits on risk may be less pronounced in elderly persons, when atherosclerosis is more advanced. However, few data address the influence of diet on CVD risk (...) CVD (combined stroke, ischemic heart disease death, and nonfatal myocardial infarction).During 8.6 years mean follow-up, there were 811 incident CVD events. After adjustment for age, sex, education, diabetes, ever smoking, pack-years of smoking, daily physical activity, exercise intensity, alcohol intake, and fruit and vegetable fiber consumption, cereal fiber consumption was inversely associated with incident CVD (P for trend =.02), with 21% lower risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence
Association of nitrotyrosine levels with cardiovasculardisease and modulation by statin therapy. Formation of nitric oxide-derived oxidants may serve as a mechanism linking inflammation to development of atherosclerosis. Nitrotyrosine, a specific marker for protein modification by nitric oxide-derived oxidants, is enriched in human atherosclerotic lesions and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) recovered from human atheroma.To determine whether systemic levels of nitrotyrosine are associated (...) with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are modulated by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy.A case-control and interventional study at 2 urban tertiary-care referral centers; recruitment for each was from June 1, 2001, until January 1, 2002. For the case-control study, 100 case-patients with established CAD and 108 patients with no clinically evident CAD were recruited consecutively. In the interventional study, participants aged 21 years or older
Folate and vitamin B-12 and risk of fatal cardiovasculardisease: cohort study from Busselton, Western Australia. To test the hypothesis that the incidence of fatal coronary heart disease and cardiovasculardisease in a general population is related to serum and red cell folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations.Cohort study with follow up of 29 years.Busselton, Western Australia.1419 men and 1531 women aged 20 to 90 years, who were alive more than three years after their participation in the 1969 (...) Busselton health survey. 2314 (78.4%) had no cardiovasculardisease at the initial survey.Hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease and cardiovasculardisease in men and women according to baseline concentrations of serum and red cell folate and serum vitamin B-12.213 men and 159 women died from coronary heart disease, and 342 men and 302 women died from cardiovasculardisease. Serum and red cell folate concentrations showed a moderate positive correlation (r=0.26, P<0.001) but otherwise serum
Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduces the rate of cardiovascular events among patients with left-ventricular dysfunction and those at high risk of such events. We assessed whether the ACE inhibitor perindopril reduced cardiovascular risk in a low-risk population (...) consistent in all predefined subgroups and secondary endpoints. Perindopril was well tolerated.Among patients with stable coronary heart disease without apparent heart failure, perindopril can significantly improve outcome. About 50 patients need to be treated for a period of 4 years to prevent one major cardiovascular event. Treatment with perindopril, on top of other preventive medications, should be considered in all patients with coronary heart disease.
2003LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovasculardisease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. The worldwide explosive increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular morbidity are becoming major health concerns.To evaluate the effect of decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on the risk of cardiovasculardisease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (...) and body mass index of 30.9 (4.2). These patients were followed up for a mean (SD) of 3.3 (1.2) years.Patients with IGT were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 715) or 100 mg of acarbose 3 times a day (n = 714).The development of major cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, cardiovascular death, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular event, and peripheral vascular disease) and hypertension (> or =140/90 mm Hg).Three hundred forty-one patients (24%) discontinued their participation
Multifactorial intervention and cardiovasculardisease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovasculardisease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from (...) cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacologic therapy that targeted hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria, along with secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease with aspirin.The mean age
The role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovasculardisease and cancer: systematic review and recommendations The role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovasculardisease and cancer: systematic review and recommendations The role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovasculardisease and cancer: systematic review and recommendations Alkhenizan A, Palda V A, and the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Record Status (...) This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Alkhenizan A, Palda V A, and the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. The role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovasculardisease and cancer: systematic review and recommendations. London, Ontario: Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) 2003: 36 Authors' objectives This report aims to establish evidence