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Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin
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A comparison of magnesium sulfate with phenytoin for the prevention of eclampsia. Magnesium sulfate is used widely to prevent eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension, but few studies have compared the efficacy of magnesium sulfate with that of other drugs. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis with phenytoin for eclampsia has been recommended, but there are virtually no data to support its efficacy. Our objective was to compare magnesium sulfate with phenytoin in preventing seizures (...) in hypertensive women during labor.We randomly assigned women with hypertension who were admitted for delivery to receive either magnesium sulfate or phenytoin. The magnesium sulfate regimen consisted of a 10-g intramuscular loading dose followed by a maintenance dose of 5 g given intramuscularly every four hours. For women with severe preeclampsia, an additional 4-g loading dose was given intravenously. The phenytoin regimen included a 1000-mg loading dose infused over a period of 1 hour, followed by a 500
Lack of efficacy of phenytoin in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Epidermolysis Bullosa Study Group. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an uncommon, severely disabling, heritable disorder characterized by abnormal fragility of the skin. Open trials have suggested that phenytoin is an effective treatment, and this therapy is now widely used.To determine the efficacy of phenytoin in the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, we performed a randomized (...) , and seven patients withdrew before completing a single course. There was no significant difference in disease activity between phenytoin treatment and placebo treatment, as measured by changes in the number of blisters and erosions on the entire body (7 percent decrease vs. 6 percent increase), in the area of three designated plaques (0.4 percent decrease vs. 0.2 percent increase), or in the number of blisters and erosions in the designated plaques (12 percent decrease vs. 31 percent increase).Phenytoin
Neurobehavioral effects of phenytoin prophylaxis of posttraumatic seizures. In order to determine potential negative neurobehavioral effects of phenytoin given to prevent the development of posttraumatic seizures, 244 subjects were randomized to phenytoin or placebo. They received neurobehavioral assessments at 1 and 12 months postinjury while receiving their assigned drug and at 24 months while receiving no drugs. In the severely injured, phenytoin significantly impaired performance at 1 month (...) . No significant differences were found as a function of phenytoin in the moderately injured patients at 1 month or in either severity group at 1 year. Patients who stopped receiving phenytoin according to protocol between 1 and 2 years improved more than corresponding placebo cases on several measures. We conclude that phenytoin has negative cognitive effects. This, combined with lack of evidence for its effectiveness in preventing posttraumatic seizures beyond the first week, raises questions regarding its
A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used to prevent seizures that may follow head trauma. However, previous controlled studies of this practice have been inconclusive.To study further the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) in preventing post-traumatic seizures, we randomly assigned 404 eligible patients with serious head trauma to treatment with phenytoin (n = 208) or placebo (n = 196) for one year (...) in a double-blind fashion. An intravenous loading dose was given within 24 hours of injury. Serum levels of phenytoin were maintained in the high therapeutic range (3 to 6 mumol of free phenytoin per liter). Follow-up was continued for two years. The primary data analysis was performed according to the intention to treat.Between drug loading and day 7, 3.6 percent of the patients assigned to phenytoin had seizures, as compared with 14.2 percent of patients assigned to placebo (P less than 0.001; risk
Comparison of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone in partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. We conducted a 10-center, double-blind trial to compare the efficacy and toxicity of four antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 622 adults. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, or primidone and were followed for two years or until the drug failed (...) to control seizures or caused unacceptable side effects. Overall treatment success was highest with carbamazepine or phenytoin, intermediate with phenobarbital, and lowest with primidone (P less than 0.002). Differences in failure rates of the drugs were explained primarily by the fact that primidone caused more intolerable acute toxic effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sedation. Decreased libido and impotence were more common in patients given primidone. Phenytoin caused more dysmorphic
Placebo-controlled study of phenobarbitone and phenytoin in the prophylaxis of febrile convulsions. Of 138 children who had a first febrile convulsion before their second birthday, 48 were treated with phenobarbitone, 47 with phenytoin, and 43 with a placebo for 12 months. Drug levels were monitored and adverse effects of the drugs were noted. Compared with placebo, phenobarbitone significantly reduced recurrences among children under 14 months old at the time of their first convulsion, but nor (...) among older children. Phenytoin was an ineffective prophylactic agent. Ideal drug levels were difficult to maintain, and many recurrences occurred when concentrations were suboptimal. Behavioural disturbance in children taking phenobarbitone was not a serious problem. The decision to give continuous prophylaxis for febrile convulsions is complex, and each case must be judged on its merits. For children who have a first seizure before 14 months of age prophylaxis may be advisable and phenobarbitone
Postoperative epilepsy: a double-blind trial of phenytoin after craniotomy. In a double-blind trial of phenytoin for the prevention of postoperative epilepsy in craniotomy patients, epilepsy was observed in 7.9% (8/101) of patients treated with phenytoin and in 16.7% (17/102) of those receiving placebo. Therapeutic drug levels were associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of epilepsy. Three-quarters of the fits occurred within a month of cranial surgery. High rates of epilepsy (...) have been observed after cranial surgery in patients with meningioma, aneurysm, and head injury with or without intracranial clots, and routine prophylaxis with phenytoin would seem to be indicated in such patients.
One drug (phenytoin) in the treatment of epilepsy. Thirty-one, previously untreated, adult outpatients with idiopathic or focal grand-mal and/or focal minor seizures were treated initially with phenytoin. Serum-phenytoin concentrations were monitored to achieve an optimum range of 10-20 mug/ml if necessary. With a mean duration of follow-up of 14-7 months, only three (10%) patients have required the addition of a second drug, although without the guidance of serum concentrations sixteen (54 (...) %) might have been treated with a further drug. In the optimum serum-phenytoin range only 1 grand-mal attack occurred in this series, compared with a mean pre-treatment grand-mal seizure-rate of 1-1/month. Serum phenytoin declined slowly in fourteen (45%) patients. These observations suggest that many epileptic patients could be satisfactorily treated with one drug instead of the polypharmacy which they usually receive.