Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

21. Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. (PubMed)

Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.To investigate the genetic factors (...) associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct

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2014 JAMA

22. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing CPIC GuIdelInes nature publishing group Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability, partly due to genetic variations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (CYP2C9). Furthermore, the variant allele HLA- B*15:02, encoding human leukocyte antigen, is associated with an increased risk of Stevens–Johnson (...) syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in response to phenytoin treatment. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide recommendations for the use of phenytoin based on CYP2C9 and/or HLA-B genotype (also available on PharmGKB: http://www.pharmgkb.org). The purpose of this guideline is to provide information for the interpretation of HLA-B and/or CYP2C9 genotype tests so that the results can guide dosing and/or use of phenytoin. Detailed guidelines

2014 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium

23. Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? (PubMed)

Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? Guidelines recommend the use of cardiac telemetry when phenytoin is administered intravenously. Clinical areas where telemetry is available may not always be the most suitable place to monitor and treat these sick patients. We sought to clarify the evidence regarding the need for cardiac telemetry during intravenous infusion of phenytoin.© 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal

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2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

24. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. This is an updated version of the previously published Cochrane review (Issue 4, 2009)Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types.To review (...) the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in individuals with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types.We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 18 February 2013), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 February 2013

2013 Cochrane

25. Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults (PubMed)

Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults 23436385 2013 10 17 2013 11 21 1552-4604 53 4 2013 Apr Journal of clinical pharmacology J Clin Pharmacol Precision, bias, and clinical utility of the Sheiner-Tozer equation to guide phenytoin dosing in critically ill adults. 451-5 10.1002/jcph.27 Bolt Jennifer J Pharmacy Services, Interior Health Authority, #200-1835 Gordon Dr., Kelowna, BC V1Y3H5. Gorman Sean K SK eng Journal (...) Article Review 2013 02 22 England J Clin Pharmacol 0366372 0091-2700 0 Anticonvulsants 6158TKW0C5 Phenytoin IM Adult Algorithms Anticonvulsants administration & dosage pharmacokinetics Critical Illness Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Humans Phenytoin administration & dosage pharmacokinetics 2011 12 08 2012 07 15 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 10 18 6 0 ppublish 23436385 10.1002/jcph.27

2013 EvidenceUpdates

26. A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury

A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury Pieracci FM, Moore EE, Beauchamp K, Tebockhorst S, Barnett CC, Bensard DD, Burlew CC, Biffl WL, Stoval RT (...) , Johnson JL Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the clinical and economic impact of levetiracetam, compared with phenytoin, to prevent early seizures after traumatic brain injury. The authors concluded

2013 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

27. Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. (PubMed)

Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Antiepileptic drugs have been used in pain management since the 1960s; some have shown efficacy in treating different neuropathic pain conditions. Phenytoin is an established antiepileptic drug that has been used occasionally to treat intractable trigeminal neuralgia.To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register (...) of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE, and EMBASE to 28 February 2012, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov.We planned to include randomised, double-blind studies of eight weeks duration or longer, comparing phenytoin with placebo or another active treatment in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.Two review authors would independently extract data for efficacy and adverse events, and examine issues of study

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2012 Cochrane

28. The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the Setting of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the Setting of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury "The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the " by Gregg V. Kosloff < > > > > > Title Author Date of Graduation Summer 8-11-2012 Degree Type Capstone Project Degree Name Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies First Advisor Mark Pedemonte, MD Second Advisor Annjanette Sommers, PA-C, MS Rights . Abstract Background: Each year in the United States (...) an estimated 1.7 million people suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Current standard of care for these patients is seven days of phenytoin (PHT) for seizure prophylaxis. Given the known side effect profile and drug interactions associated with the use of PHT, levetiracetam (LEV) has been proposed as an alternative for seizure prophylaxis. This systematic review examined available literature to determine whether or not there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of LEV in lieu of PHT. Method

2012 Pacific University EBM Capstone Project

29. Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant?

Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? BestBets: Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Report By: Subramanian Ganesan, Nahin Hussain - Specialist Registrars in Paediatrics Institution: Department of Paediatric Neurology, University (...) products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the UK Commission on Human Medicines) issued an alert on the antiepileptic drug (AED) phenytoin (PHT) regarding an increased risk of Steven–Johnson syndrome (SJS) associated with the presence of the HLA-B*1502 genetic variant in patients of Asian origin. Likewise, the US Federal Drug Agency (FDA) recommended genotyping for the allele in all Asian patients before starting carbamazepine (CBZ). We wanted to explore the implications of this for our clinical practice

2011 BestBETS

30. Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children (PubMed)

Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children Gingival overgrowth is an important adverse effect of phenytoin (PHT) therapy, occurring in about half of the patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral folic acid supplementation (0.5 mg/day) for the prevention of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PIGO) in children with epilepsy aged 6-15 years on PHT monotherapy for 6 months.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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2011 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

31. Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin

Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. or Search Phenytoin: risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with HLA-B*1502 allele in patients of Thai or Han Chinese ethnic origin If patients are known to be HLA-B*1502-positive (...) , phenytoinshould be avoided when alternative therapy can be given. Published 11 December 2014 From: Therapeutic area: Contents Article date: January 2010 Phenytoin (brand leader Epanutin) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Phenytoin is one of the most common causes of antiepileptic-related cutaneous adverse reactions, including life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). A recent study has shown a significant association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA

2010 MHRA Drug Safety Update

32. Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury

Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain injury Cost-effectiveness analysis of intravenous levetiracetam versus intravenous phenytoin for early onset seizure prophylaxis after neurosurgery and traumatic brain (...) injury Kazerooni R, Bounthavong M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the cost-effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam, compared with conventional intravenous phenytoin, as prophylaxis against seizures

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2010 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

33. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy. (PubMed)

Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy. Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Oxcarbazepine is one of the newer antiepileptic drugs and has similar chemical properties to its parent compound carbamazepine. For the new drugs such as oxcarbazepine, it is important to know how they compare with standard treatments.To review the best evidence comparing oxcarbazepine and phenytoin when used as monotherapy in patients with epilepsy.We searched the Cochrane (...) a comparison of oxcarbazepine monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy.This was an individual patient data review. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Outcomes were (a) time on allocated treatment; (b) time to achieve 6, 12 and 24-month remission; (c) time to first seizure post randomization; (d) quality of life measures if available. Clinical heterogeneity was assessed by reviewing differences across trials

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2006 Cochrane

34. Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department

Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department Rudis M I, Touchette D R, Swadron S P, Chiu A P, Orlinsky M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral phenytoin (poP), intravenous phenytoin (ivP), and intravenous fosphenytoin (ivF) for the treatment of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with seizures and sub-therapeutic phenytoin concentrations. poP was administered in increments

2004 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

35. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset (simple partial, complex partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures) seizures whilst valproate is more effective in generalized onset seizures (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, absence, myoclonus) although there is no evidence from (...) randomized controlled trials to support this belief. The use of individual patient data meta-analysis enabled us to examine time to event outcomes which are important in epilepsy monotherapy trials, and also to examine treatment-covariate interactions.To review the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in subjects with partial onset seizures, or generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalized seizure types.Our search strategy included: (i

2001 Cochrane

36. Cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in the emergency department

Cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in the emergency department Cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in the emergency department Touchette D R, Rhoney D H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed (...) drug treatments. The effectiveness, in terms of stopping seizures, was assumed to be equal for both the drugs. Patients in status epilepticus, and those for whom intravenous phenytoin would not be administered, were excluded from the analysis. Outcomes assessed in the review The outcomes assessed in the review, and used as input parameters in the decision model, were mainly the clinical data on the rates of several adverse events. These were collected prospectively and retrospectively from

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2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

37. Phenobarbital compared with phenytoin for the treatment of neonatal seizures. (PubMed)

Phenobarbital compared with phenytoin for the treatment of neonatal seizures. Seizures occur in 1 to 2 percent of neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. The treatment is usually with either phenobarbital or phenytoin, but the efficacy of the two drugs has not been compared directly.From 1990 to 1995, we studied 59 neonates with seizures that were confirmed by electroencephalography. The neonates were randomly assigned to receive either phenobarbital or phenytoin intravenously, at doses (...) sufficient to achieve free plasma concentrations of 25 microg per milliliter for phenobarbital and 3 microg per milliliter for phenytoin. Neonates whose seizures were not controlled by the assigned drug were then treated with both drugs. Seizure control was assessed by electroencephalographic criteria.Seizures were controlled in 13 of the 30 neonates assigned to receive phenobarbital (43 percent) and 13 of the 29 neonates assigned to receive phenytoin (45 percent; P=1.00). When combined treatment

1999 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

38. An economic appraisal of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate as initial treatment in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy

An economic appraisal of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate as initial treatment in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy An economic appraisal of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate as initial treatment in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy An economic appraisal of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate as initial treatment in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy Heaney D C, Shorvon S D, Sander J W Record Status This is a critical abstract (...) of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Four drugs used in monotherapy during the first two years of treatment for newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy were compared. These were Carbamazepine (CBZ), Phenytoin (PHT), Valproate (VPA) and Lamotrigine (LTG). Type

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

39. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intravenous fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) versus intravenous phenytoin (Dilantin) in hospital emergency departments

A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intravenous fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) versus intravenous phenytoin (Dilantin) in hospital emergency departments A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intravenous fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) versus intravenous phenytoin (Dilantin) in hospital emergency departments A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intravenous fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) versus intravenous phenytoin (Dilantin) in hospital emergency departments Marchetti A, Magar R, Fischer J, Sloan E, Fischer P Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous (IV) fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) versus IV phenytoin (Dilantin) in patients needing an IV loading dose of phenytoin for the treatment or prevention of seizures in acute care settings. Type

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

40. Randomised comparative monotherapy trial of phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. (PubMed)

Randomised comparative monotherapy trial of phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. The medical treatment of childhood epilepsy is largely influenced by clinical trials in adult patients. We know of only one randomised comparative trial (of two drugs) in newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. We have undertaken a long-term, prospective, randomised, unmasked, pragmatic trial of the comparative efficacy and toxicity of four standard (...) antiepileptic drugs used as monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.Between 1981 and 1987, 167 children aged 3-16 years, who had had at least two previously untreated tonic-clonic or partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation, were randomly allocated treatment with phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate. The protocol was designed to conform to standard clinical practice. Efficacy was assessed by time to first seizure after the start of treatment and time

1996 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain