Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

1. Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most significant adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the third update of a previously (...) published Cochrane Review.To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on antitumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy as compared to placebo, no additional treatment or another protective medical intervention.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed) and Embase (Ovid) to 8 January 2019. We

2019 Cochrane

2. Preventive lipid-based nutrient supplements given with complementary foods to infants and young children 6 to 23 months of age for health, nutrition, and developmental outcomes. (PubMed)

Preventive lipid-based nutrient supplements given with complementary foods to infants and young children 6 to 23 months of age for health, nutrition, and developmental outcomes. One nutritional intervention advocated to prevent malnutrition among children is lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS). LNS provide a range of vitamins and minerals, but unlike most other micronutrient supplements, LNS also provide energy, protein and essential fatty acids. Alternative recipes and formulations to LNS (...) include fortified blended foods (FBF), which are foods fortified with vitamins and minerals, and micronutrient powders (MNP), which are a combination of vitamins and minerals, OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of preventive LNS given with complementary foods on health, nutrition and developmental outcomes of non-hospitalised infants and children six to 23 months of age, and whether or not they are more effective than other foods (including FBF or MNP).This review did not assess the effects

2019 Cochrane

3. Pheochromocytoma in Children With MEN Type 2B

Pheochromocytoma in Children With MEN Type 2B We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Pheochromocytoma in Children and Adolescents With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic Search Account Menu Menu Navbar Search Filter Mobile Microsite Search Term Close search filter search input (...) Article Navigation Close mobile search navigation Article navigation January 2019 Article Navigation Pheochromocytoma in Children and Adolescents With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Angeliki Makri Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Correspondence and Reprint Requests: Angeliki Makri, MD, MSc, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National

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2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

4. Mepolizumab (Nucala) - severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older

Mepolizumab (Nucala) - severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older Final Appraisal Recommendation Advice No: 0619 – April 2019 Mepolizumab (Nucala ® ) 100 mg powder for solution for injection Limited submission by GlaxoSmithKline UK Additional note(s): • Please refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics for the full licensed indication. In reaching the above recommendation AWMSG has taken account of the appraisal documentation prepared (...) ) is recommended as an option for restricted use within NHS Wales. Mepolizumab (Nucala ® ) is licensed as an add-on treatment for severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older. Mepolizumab (Nucala ® ) is restricted for use in a subpopulation of the licensed indication in line with the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence recommendation for the restricted use of mepolizumab for treating severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adults (TA431). Mepolizumab

2019 All Wales Medicines Strategy Group

5. Liraglutide in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Liraglutide in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes. Metformin is the regulatory-approved treatment of choice for most youth with type 2 diabetes early in the disease. However, early loss of glycemic control has been observed with metformin monotherapy. Whether liraglutide added to metformin (with or without basal insulin treatment) is safe and effective in youth with type 2 diabetes is unknown.Patients who were 10 to less than 17 years of age were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio (...) %] with liraglutide and 55 [80.9%] with placebo), but the overall rates of adverse events and gastrointestinal adverse events were higher with liraglutide.In children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes, liraglutide, at a dose of up to 1.8 mg per day (added to metformin, with or without basal insulin), was efficacious in improving glycemic control over 52 weeks. This efficacy came at the cost of an increased frequency of gastrointestinal adverse events. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; Ellipse ClinicalTrials.gov number

2019 NEJM

6. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially (...) more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.ConSEPT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted in 13 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand. Children aged between 3 months and 16 years, with convulsive status epilepticus that failed first-line benzodiazepine treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1

2019 Lancet

7. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Elevated blood lead levels in children are associated with neurologic effects such as behavioral and learning problems, lower IQ, hyperactivity, hearing problems, and impaired growth. In pregnant women, lead exposure can impair organ systems such as the hematopoietic, hepatic, renal, and nervous systems, and increase the risk of preeclampsia and adverse perinatal (...) outcomes. Many of the adverse health effects of lead exposure are irreversible.To update the 2006 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for elevated blood lead levels in children and pregnant women.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of elevated blood lead levels. In this update, an elevated blood lead level was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference level of 5 μg/dL.The USPSTF

2019 JAMA

8. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injection regimens in children and young people at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. (PubMed)

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injection regimens in children and young people at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost utility of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with multiple daily injection (MDI) regimens during the first year following diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young people.Pragmatic, multicentre, open label, parallel group (...) ketoacidosis were low in both groups. Fifty four non-serious and 14 serious adverse events were reported during CSII treatment, and 17 non-serious and eight serious adverse events during MDI treatment. Parents (but not children) reported superior PedsQL scores for those patients treated with CSII compared to those treated with MDI. CSII was more expensive than MDI by £1863 (€2179; $2474; 95% confidence interval £1620 to £2137) per patient, with no additional QALY gains (difference -0.006 (95% confidence

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2019 BMJ

9. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. (PubMed)

Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. This is the first update of a review published in 2015, Issue 1. Chronic pain is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes, such as increased severity of pain, reduced function, and low mood. Psychological therapies, traditionally delivered face-to-face with a therapist, are efficacious at reducing pain intensity and disability (...) . To address barriers to treatment access, such as distance and cost of treatment, technology is being used to deliver these psychological therapies remotely. Therapies delivered remotely, such as via the Internet, computer-based programmes, and smartphone applications, can be used to deliver treatment to children and adolescents with chronic pain.To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting list, treatment as usual, or active control treatments

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2019 Cochrane

10. Constraint-induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. (PubMed)

Constraint-induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that affects muscle control and function on one side of the body. Children with unilateral CP experience difficulties using their hands together secondary to disturbances that occur in the developing fetal or infant brain. Often, the more affected limb is disregarded. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) aims to increase use of the more affected upper limb (...) and improve bimanual performance. CIMT is based on two principles: restraining the use of the less affected limb (for example, using a splint, mitt or sling) and intensive therapeutic practice of the more affected limb.To evaluate the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in the treatment of the more affected upper limb in children with unilateral CP.In March 2018 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, OTseeker, five other databases and three trials registers. We also ran

2019 Cochrane

11. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. (PubMed)

Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children. Symptoms include fever, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. UTI is caused by Escherichia coli in over 80% of cases and treatment is a course of antibiotics. Due to acute illness caused by UTI and the risk of pyelonephritis-induced permanent kidney damage, many children are given long-term (several months to 2 years) antibiotics aimed at preventing recurrence (...) . This is the third update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2006, and 2011.To assess whether long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was more effective than placebo/no treatment in preventing recurrence of UTI in children, and if so which antibiotic in clinical use was the most effective. We also assessed the harms of long-term antibiotic treatment.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 30 July 2018 through contact with the Cochrane Information Specialist using search

2019 Cochrane

12. Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (HIV-infected children) - Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V

Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (HIV-infected children) - Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V Extract 1 Translation of Sections 2.1 to 2.6 of the dossier assessment Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabin/Tenofovir- alafenamid (HIV-Infektion bei Kindern) – Nutzenbewertung gemäß § 35a SGB V (Version 1.0; Status: 12 April 2018). Please note: This translation is provided as a service by IQWiG to English-language readers. However, solely the German (...) original text is absolutely authoritative and legally binding. IQWiG Reports – Commission No. A18-01 Elvitegravir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (HIV-infected children) – Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V 1 Extract of dossier assessment A18-01 Version 1.0 EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF (HIV-infected children) 12 April 2018 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) - i - Publishing details Publisher: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care Topic

2019 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

13. Mepolizumab (Nucala) - as an add-on treatment for severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older

Mepolizumab (Nucala) - as an add-on treatment for severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older Published 08 April 2019 1 Product update SMC2139 mepolizumab 100mg powder for solution for injection (Nucala®) GlaxoSmithKline UK Limited 8 March 2019 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHSScotland. The advice (...) is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following an abbreviated submission mepolizumab (Nucala®) is accepted for restricted use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: as an add-on treatment for severe refractory eosinophilic asthma in adolescents and children aged 6 years and older. SMC restriction: patients who have eosinophils of at least 150 cells per microlitre (0.15 x 10 9 /L) at initiation of treatment and have had at least four asthma exacerbations in the preceding year or are receiving maintenance

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium

14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Screening

Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Screening Final Update Summary: Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 11/16/2018 6:27:19 PM You are here: Final Summary Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Screening Release Date: April 2019 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Children 5 years and younger (...) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children. Pregnant persons The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic pregnant persons. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence summary in JAMA , select . See the for suggestions

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

15. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating obesity in children. (PubMed)

WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating obesity in children. Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences.To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood.We searched CENTRAL on The Cochrane Library Issue 2 2008, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, DARE and NHS EED. Searches were undertaken from 1985 to May 2008. References were (...) checked. No language restrictions were applied.We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of lifestyle (i.e. dietary, physical activity and/or behavioural therapy), drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in children (mean age under 18 years) with or without the support of family members, with a minimum of six months follow up (three months for actual drug therapy). Interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included

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2019 Cochrane

16. Viral gastroenteritis in children

Viral gastroenteritis in children Viral gastroenteritis in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Viral gastroenteritis in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Associated with substantial morbidity in developed countries. Continues to be a cause of significant mortality in developing countries. Presents with vomiting and diarrhoea (with or without fever, nausea

2019 BMJ Best Practice

17. The use of ultrasound guidance for perioperative neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks in children. (PubMed)

The use of ultrasound guidance for perioperative neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks in children. The use of ultrasound guidance for regional anaesthesia has become popular over the past two decades. However, it is not recognized by all experts as an essential tool, perhaps because it is unclear whether ultrasound reduces the risk of severe neurological complications, and the cost of an ultrasound machine (USD 22,000) is substantially higher than the cost of other tools. This review (...) was published in 2016 and updated in 2019.To determine whether ultrasound guidance offers any clinical advantage when neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks are performed in children in terms of decreasing failure rate or the rate of complications.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trial registers up to March 2018 together with reference checking to identify additional studies and contacted study authors to obtain additional trial information.We included all parallel randomized controlled trials

2019 Cochrane

18. Effect of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy vs Placebo on Reaction to Peanut Protein Ingestion Among Children With Peanut Allergy: The PEPITES Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effect of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy vs Placebo on Reaction to Peanut Protein Ingestion Among Children With Peanut Allergy: The PEPITES Randomized Clinical Trial. There are currently no approved treatments for peanut allergy.To assess the efficacy and adverse events of epicutaneous immunotherapy with a peanut patch among peanut-allergic children.Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 31 sites in 5 countries between January 8, 2016, and August 18, 2017 (...) . Participants included peanut-allergic children (aged 4-11 years [n = 356] without a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction) developing objective symptoms during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge at an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein.Daily treatment with peanut patch containing either 250 μg of peanut protein (n = 238) or placebo (n = 118) for 12 months.The primary outcome was the percentage difference in responders between the peanut patch and placebo patch based

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2019 JAMA

19. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. (PubMed)

Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. The anaemia seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be exacerbated by iron deficiency. Iron can be provided through different routes, with advantages and drawbacks of each route. It remains unclear whether the potential harms and additional costs of intravenous (IV) compared with oral iron are justified. This is an update of a review first published in 2012.To determine the benefits and harms of IV iron (...) supplementation compared with oral iron for anaemia in adults and children with CKD, including participants on dialysis, with kidney transplants and CKD not requiring dialysis.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 7 December 2018 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

20. Effectiveness of provision of animal-source foods for supporting optimal growth and development in children 6 to 59 months of age. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of provision of animal-source foods for supporting optimal growth and development in children 6 to 59 months of age. Adequate nutrients early in life promote cognitive development and are critical for proper growth and functioning. The effect of individual nutrients consumed through food is often not the same as consuming the same nutrients in supplementary form due to 'food synergy', the biological and chemical interrelations that occur between nutrients. Animal-source foods (...) , such as eggs, meat, fish, and dairy, are energy dense and contain multiple micronutrients and essential fatty acids with high bioavailability. The benefits of animal-source foods may include higher food synergy relative to fortified foods as well as decreasing dependence on external suppliers of fortified foods.To assess the effectiveness of animal-source foods compared to any other feeding interventions or no intervention in improving growth and developmental outcomes in children aged 6 to 59 months.We

2019 Cochrane